This seemingly straightforward question is quite difficult to answer. On smallholder farms, all family members generally play important roles in agricultural production. But farm surveys typically interview men under the assumption that men are the household head, landholders, and farmers (see Deere, Alvarado, and Twyman 2012). This implicitly implies that women are not considered farmers, reinforcing the idea that women play a minimal part in agricultural production. Furthermore, some crops like rice are often viewed as a male dominated production activity. However, little empirical evidence exists about women’s roles in the rice sector in Latin America.
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