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New publication: Gender, Assets, and Agricultural Development: Lessons from Eight Projects

Originally posted on the Gender, Agriculture, and Asset Project (GAAP) website

A new paper co-authored by GAAP PIs and other  GAAP1 team members, synthesizing the findings of the 8 impact evaluations of projects which were part of the first phase of GAAP, is now available. The evaluations used mixed methods to show the impact agricultural development programs have on individual and household assets in seven countries in Africa south of the Sahara and South Asia.

While all projects showed an increase in assets at the household level, only 4 were able to increase women’s control of assets, and only one project contributed to a reduction in the gender-asset gap. Similarly, many projects showed an increase in women’s income but were unable to increase the relative control women have over income from projects.

The review did find, however, that even in cases where there were no impacts on asset ownership and control over income, the interventions improved women’s lives and welfare and influenced underlying norms about women’s work and participation in decision-making.

In addition to the quantitative and qualitative findings from GAAP1 on the importance of paying greater attention to gender and assets by researchers and development implementers, the methodological contributions made by the program to the study of gender and assets will be used and built upon in thesecond phase of GAAP (GAAP2).

More information about the GAAP1 portfolio can be found here.

The paper ‘Gender, Assets, and Agricultural Development: Lessons from Eight Projects’ is open-access and can be read here.


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Takeaways from twenty years of gender and rural development research at IFPRI: Closing gender gaps in agriculture through property rights and governance

Photo: Milo Mitchell. Source: Flickr (IFPRI Images)

Photo: Milo Mitchell. Source: Flickr (IFPRI Images)

The following blog by IFPRI gender experts Sophie Theis, Agnes Quisumbing, and Ruth Meinzen-Dick is the second in a four-part series leading up to the Policy Seminar on “Beijing +20 and Beyond: How Gender Research Is Changing the Landscape of Food Policy,” to be held on October 14, 2015 at IFPRI’s Washington, DC headquarters. This blog originally appeared on IFPRI.org.

To commemorate Beijing+20, we are taking stock of research at IFPRI over the past 20 years that contributed to advancing gender equality by generating evidence from action, and compelling action from the evidence produced.

This blogpost, part two in a four-part series on IFPRI gender research in the past 20 years, shares key takeaways from research on themes of:

  • closing gender gaps in agricultural productivity
  • access, control, and ownership of assets
  • land rights
  • legal institutions and governance

Tune in to the next post in the blog series to read highlights from IFPRI gender research related to social capital, sustainability, and health. See full list of publications (PDF 94K). Then join us on October 14th for anIFPRI policy seminar celebrating Beijing+20.

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[UPDATED] Call for concept notes: Gender, Agriculture, and Assets Project (GAAP 2)

The International Food Policy Research Institute has received a second round of support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to adapt and validate a measure of women’s empowerment that agricultural development projects can use to diagnose key areas of women’s (and men’s) disempowerment, design appropriate strategies to address deficiencies, and monitor project outcomes related to women’s empowerment. This empowerment measure will be based on the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI) developed by IFPRI, USAID, and OPHI (Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative), but will be adapted for project use.

This second round, called GAAP2, will run for five years (2015-2020) and will build on the experience of the Gender, Agriculture and Assets Project (GAAP, 2010-2014), which worked with a set of agricultural development projects to incorporate gender into their M&E frameworks and evaluate their impacts on women’s assets. This work is undertaken as part of the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) led by IFPRI, and will be complementary to ongoing efforts to use and adapt the WEAI, supported by USAID.

With this call, we are inviting agricultural development projects to participate in piloting and validating a project-level Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (pro-WEAI), and to become part of a Community of Practice on measuring women’s empowerment in agricultural development projects. This effort has the potential to have broader applicability beyond agricultural projects.

For the call for concept notes, click here.

For an editable Word version of the call for concept notes, click here.

To view an anonymized, illustrative budget from GAAP1, please view the Sample GAAP budget for guidance, keeping in mind that projects in GAAP2 may request different budget items depending on need.

The GAAP team has also put together an FAQ document, available here: Frequently Asked Questions


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Report Release: Measuring Women’s Economic Empowerment and M&E Guidelines

From the Women’s Economic Empowerment: A Roadmap website:

Design challenges are common to most program evaluations, but this is especially true for programs that measure women’s economic empowerment. This is because of the interdependence between women’s economic and social roles, which influences their business choices and returns to those businesses. For example, because women have significant family responsibilities, they may have different goals for their businesses, such as less growth but the option to work from home. This makes the choice of measures used to capture empowerment particularly complex.

Building on the results of the Roadmap report (2013), the United Nations Foundation and the ExxonMobil Foundation commissioned five expert researchers to produce independent think pieces on distinct economic empowerment measurement topics.

In 2014, the foundations convened the researchers to discuss their recommendations and identify a common set of widely applicable outcome measures across two categories: urban women entrepreneurs and business leaders, and rural women entrepreneurs and farmers.

The Measuring Women’s Economic Empowerment report (2015), a companion to the Roadmap report, summarizes recommended measures to assess intermediate, direct, and final outcomes of women’s economic empowerment programs.

In addition, an M&E Guidelines document was produced that includes questionnaire modules for each of the outcomes discussed.

This work was presented at an event at the Center for Global Development on June 16. A video of the event is available here.

More information on the project is available here: www.womeneconroadmap.org/measurement.


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New Post on the PIM EnGendering Data Blog: “Yours, Mine, and Ours” by Agnes Quisumbing

Food-allocations-757x1024

Increasing evidence demonstrates the importance of women’s control and ownership of assets for achieving important development outcomes. Yet, studies focusing exclusively on increasing women’s asset ownership and control, or increasing their ownership of a specific kind of asset, run the risk of missing what else is happening within a household. Does the woman increase control of some assets (perhaps the asset targeted by the program), but lose control of others? Do her assets increase, but those of her husband increase more? Or, are couples building their asset base jointly, such that looking only at his or hers, misses the big picture?

Read on at the PIM EnGendering Data Blog.


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New EnGendering Data blogpost: “Do you own the asset?”

The CGIAR Research Program on Policies, Markets, and Institutions (PIM) has another great post on the EnGendering Data blog.

In “Do you own the asset?”, R Padmaja and Dr. Cynthia Bantilan of ICRISAT discuss small but critical changes they made to their survey instrument to collect better data on women’s asset ownership.

Read the full post here, and join the conversation on Twitter by using #EnGenderingData!


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Publication: Gender, assets, and market-oriented agriculture: learning from high-value crop and livestock projects in Africa and Asia

A new paper synthesizing findings and “lessons learned” from four of the Gender, Assets, and Agriculture projects (LandOLakes, CARE-Bangladesh, HarvestPlus REU, and HKI Burkina Faso) is available online on the Agriculture and Human Values journal website.

Abstract:

Strengthening the abilities of smallholder farmers in developing countries, particularly women farmers, to produce for both home and the market is currently a development priority. In many contexts, ownership of assets is strongly gendered, reflecting existing gender norms and limiting women’s ability to invest in more profitable livelihood strategies such as market-oriented agriculture. Yet the intersection between women’s asset endowments and their ability to participate in and benefit from agricultural interventions receives minimal attention. This paper explores changes in gender relations and women’s assets in four agricultural interventions that promoted high value agriculture with different degrees of market-orientation. Findings suggest that these dairy and horticulture projects can successfully involve women and increase production, income and the stock of household assets. In some cases, women were able to increase their control over production, income and assets; however in most cases men’s incomes increased more than women’s and the gender-asset gap did not decrease. Gender- and asset-based barriers to participation in projects as well as gender norms that limit women’s ability to accumulate and retain control over assets both contributed to the results. Comparing experiences across the four projects, especially where projects implemented adaptive measures to encourage gender-equitable outcomes, provides lessons for gender-responsive projects targeting existing and emerging value chains for high value products. Other targeted support to women farmers may also be needed to promote their acquisition of the physical assets required to expand production or enter other nodes of the value chain.