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IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar: Good practices and lessons learned on gender and collective lands

Resource Equity with Landesa

Presentation by Elisa Scalise and Renee Giovarelli, Co-founders of Resource Equity

Chair: Agnes Quisumbing, Senior Research Fellow, IFPRI Poverty, Health, and Nutrition Division

Discussant: Ruth Meinzen-Dick, Senior Research Fellow, IFPRI Environment and Production Technology Division

Monday, March 14, 2016, 12:00pm-1:00pm

Please find instructions for joining virtually at the end of this message.

Synopsis of the presentation:

Global awareness of two land tenure issues–the importance of recognizing and promoting land rights for women and the problem of insecure collective land and resource tenure rights–is rising. The importance of managing collectively held land, both for those who use it and for the environment, has grown increasingly clear. In fact, studies have estimated that as much as 65 percent of the world’s land is held under collective tenure—customary, community-based tenure systems. Securing that tenure is important for protecting the rights of those communities, and has been shown to improve resource management.

However, efforts to secure community land tenure, generally through documenting and registering rights, are still new. In particular, to date, the conversation around securing collective rights to land has paid little attention to women’s rights, and the effects of formalizing the rights of the collective on women are not well studied. Focusing on securing collective land and resource rights without considering gender differences within communities has the potential to severely disadvantage women who are very often socially, economically, and politically excluded.

This report on gender issues and best practices in collective land tenure projects seeks to begin filling this gap, by taking a detailed look at how six collective tenure land projects addressed gender differences. The six case studies include projects in China, Ghana, India, Kyrgyzstan, Namibia, and Peru. The case studies are program assessments focusing primarily on how each project approached gender, what the gender-differentiated impacts have been in terms of project participation and benefits, and what lessons can be learned and best practices can be drawn from these projects.

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A4NH/IFPRI Gender Seminar: Gender, Agriculture, and Health: Tracing the Links

UPDATE: Recording of the screencast and presentations are now available on Slideshare.

The CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) and the IFPRI Gender Task Force invite you to:

Gender, Agriculture, and Health: Tracing the Links


Three 15-minute presentations from:

Kelly Jones on livelihood shocks and sexual health

Research Fellow, Markets, Trade, and Institutions Division, IFPRI

Elizabeth Bryan on irrigation, gender, and health

Senior Research Analyst, Environment Production and Technology Division, IFPRI

Delia Grace on gender-sensitive participatory risk assessment for food safety

Program Manager, Food Safety and Zoonoses, ILRI and A4NH

Chair: Hazel Malapit

Research Coordinator, A4NH and IFPRI Poverty, Health, Nutrition Division

October 20, 2015


IFPRI Conference Room 6A

Please find instructions for joining virtually at the end of this message.

How can we take into account health in our agriculture, nutrition, and gender research? Health and nutrition are closely interrelated: health status influences nutritional outcomes, by mediating a person’s ability to utilize nutrients and lead a healthy life, and nutritional status influences health, by mediating a person’s vulnerability to various illnesses. Both health and nutrition are directly and indirectly affected by rural livelihood decisions related to agriculture, livestock, and water management. Livelihood decisions and duties are gendered, in that social identity influences an individual’s options and choices. Men and women’s exposure to health risks, capacity to provide health care, and access to health services often vary due to these differing roles and rights.

This seminar provides three case studies in how gender dynamics in rural livelihoods influence health, and in turn, nutrition. Intended as an introduction to topics in gender, health, and agriculture, the seminar will help researchers familiar with the agriculture-to-nutrition pathways begin to think about how health has bearings on this framework.

In the seminar, Kelly Jones will present on recent research that traces how livelihood shocks may increase HIV transmission through higher-risk sex, especially for women. Elizabeth Bryan will share early-stage research on the links between small-scale irrigation adoption, gender, and health and nutrition outcomes. Delia Grace will introduce a gender-sensitive participatory risk assessment framework for addressing food safety.

We hope you can join this special Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) and the IFPRI Gender Task Force seminar in person at IFPRI or online via GoToMeeting (instructions below).

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IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar, Tuesday, July 28: Aspirations in Rural Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis

Aspirations in Rural Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis

Presenter: Katrina Kosec

Research Fellow, IFPRI

Discussant: Jessica Heckert

Associate Research Fellow, IFPRI

Tuesday, July 28, 12:30pm-1:30pm EST

Instructions for joining virtually are offered at the end of this message.


Aspirations are goals which people set and intend to achieve; they are increasingly being recognized as an important outcome of interest when considering poverty reduction strategies. As Adam Smith once noted, “The real tragedy of the poor is the poverty of their aspirations.” We examine the aspirations of individuals in 2,090 rural households in Pakistan surveyed by IFPRI in 2012 and again in 2013. We begin by examining individual and household correlates of aspirations, including gender and socioeconomic status. We then analyze what factors might shape aspirations—including how policymakers might raise them. In doing so, we exploit both cross-sectional and panel data to examine how community institutions and infrastructure predict aspiration levels, changes in them over time, and gender gaps in aspirations.   Finally, we carry out cross-sectional and panel data analysis to examine how well aspirations predict agricultural input choice, crop yields, economic behavior, and financial decision making. We show that aspirations are closely linked to whether citizens engage in forward-looking political and economic behavior.

We next step back and look at aspiration formation. Specifically, how do negative economic shocks affect citizens’ aspirations for the future, and can governments’ social protection policies successfully mitigate any damaging effects? Using a natural experiment in Pakistan, the 2010 floods, to identify the effects of a large economic shock on citizens’ aspiration levels, we find that citizens’ aspirations were significantly reduced—especially among the poorest and most vulnerable. However, targeted government social protection policies following natural disasters can significantly reduce their negative aspirational effects. We find that disaster-targeted social protection not only raises social welfare in the short term, but it also has an enduring effect by raising citizens’ aspirations for the future. Our results suggest that not only does the aspiration level of citizens matter, but also that government policies can affect the aspirations of its citizens.
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IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar: The Impact of Microfinance on Factors Empowering Women: Regional and Delivery Mechanisms in India’s SHG Programme

Materials from the July 20, 2015 Gender Methods Seminar are now available online. Professor Ranjula Bali Swain presented at IFPRI on the impact of microfinance on women’s empowerment, examining how the impact varies with respect to the location and type of group linkage of the respondent.

The slides are available on the IFPRI Gender Slideshare site, along with the other previous Gender Methods Seminars.

The screencast of the presentation is available here.

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Gender Methods Seminar: Gender, Power, and Decision-making in Southern Nyanza, Kenya

The IFPRI Gender Task Force invites you to a Gender Methods Seminar:

Gender, Power, and Decision-making in Southern Nyanza, Kenya

Presenter: Noora-Lisa Aberman

Wednesday, June 17, 2015


Slides and recording from the presentation are now available here.

What types of research questions lend themselves to qualitative versus quantitative analysis?  This presentation will explore the choice of analytical approach with an emphasis on the usefulness of systematic qualitative analysis. Then it will contrast two different analytical approaches, using recent examples of research from Southern Kenya exploring concepts of gender and power.

The first study, “Gendered perceptions of power at the household and group level in Southern Nyanza, Kenya,” uses open coding to understand how women and men themselves define power. This study looks at socially constructed definitions of power and decision-making between men and women at home and in mixed-sex self-help groups with the intention of informing existing economic and development paradigms in terms of how they define and measure power. The second study, “Assessing the gender-inclusive governance of self-help groups in Southern Nyanza, Kenya,” develops a framework based on theory and evidence on women and group participation that determines the broad coding themes. This study examines the governance mechanisms that promote women’s substantive participation in groups.

While both are qualitative studies from the same sample on similar topics, the different types of questions lend themselves to different analytical approaches. This presentation will review and compare these analytical approaches, as well as describe the study results and conclusions.

Presenter’s Bio:

 Noora-Lisa Aberman is the Country Program Manager for IFPRI’s Malawi Strategy Support Program (MaSSP). She largely focuses on enhancing the role that research plays in the policy dialogue through improving communications tools, developing partnerships, and undertaking policy process research. Previously, as a Senior Program Analyst with the Poverty, Health and Nutrition Division, Noora worked on a broad range of programs related to food security, health, and nutrition throughout Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. She holds an MA in International Economic Policy from American University and is pursuing a PhD in Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics at Hohenheim University as an external student.


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IFPRI Gender Methods Seminar: Managing Risk with Insurance and Savings: Experimental Evidence for Male and Female Farm Managers in West Africa

A young boy rakes away crop covers in land affected by wind erosion (Senegal). Photo: Milo Mitchell. Source: Flickr (IFPRI Image)

A young boy rakes away crop covers in land affected by wind erosion (Senegal). Photo: Milo Mitchell. Source: Flickr (IFPRI Image)

Presented by Clara Delavallade, Research Fellow, IFPRI Markets, Trades, and Institutions Department

The public is welcome to join the seminar via GoToMeeting (instructions below).

The screencast of this event is available here, and the Powerpoint presentation here.

Abstract: Despite growing policy interest in offering financial products to help rural households manage risk, the literature is still scant as to which products are the most effective. This paper uses a randomized field experiment in Senegal and Burkina Faso to compare farmers offered either index-based agricultural insurance or a variety of savings instruments. Female farmers were less likely to purchase agricultural insurance and more likely to invest in savings for emergencies, even controlling for access to informal insurance and differences in crop choice. This may result from the fact that the basis risk associated with agricultural insurance products is higher for women. Purchasing insurance increased input spending and use more than savings. Those who purchased more insurance realized higher average yields and were better able to manage food insecurity and shocks. This suggests that gender differences in demand for financial products can have an impact on productivity, resilience, and welfare.

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Gender Methods Seminar: Using Cognitive Testing and Vignettes in the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index

Today, IFPRI hosted a Gender Methods Seminar: Using Cognitive Testing and Vignettes in the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI).

Abstract: Presented by Katie Sproule and Chiara Kovarik, this Gender Methods Seminar will focus on lessons learned from two recent field tests done for the Women’s Empowerment in Agriculture Index (WEAI). Using the qualitative methods of cognitive testing and vignettes, Katie Sproule, Chiara Kovarik and colleagues tested a revised version of the WEAI in Uganda and Bangladesh during the summer of 2014. Cognitive testing is a methodology that allows researchers to systematically identify and correct response error in surveys, while vignettes are hypothetical short stories used to elicit responses on challenging and often abstract topics. This presentation will describe each of these methods in detail, how they were applied to the WEAI, and share some preliminary results and lessons learned. Attendees will learn the benefits and challenges of each methodology, what kind of information each can yield, and practical tips on how to ensure that enumerators and respondents are fully understanding the questions.

If you weren’t able to join us virtually, you can see the slides and audio recording of the presentation here. Stay tuned for upcoming Gender Methods Seminars in 2015 and please let us know if you have suggestions of a method to present.

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Gender Methods Seminar today: Measuring Women’s Empowerment in Rural India Using Vignettes

Slides from the presentation are available at the end of this post.

Abstract: Many development projects have empowerment as one of their goals or as a means to achieve other development goals. Yet, the measurement of empowerment has proved very difficult and is riddled with technical and conceptual problems. Current approaches to measurement of empowerment rely on long questionnaires and, to some extent, on subjective perceptions which are not comparable across groups. In this paper we propose a method for measuring self-reported empowerment using anchoring vignettes and provide an application to a sample of rural women in Andhra Pradesh. This method is simple to administer and addresses biases in subjective perceptions. We show how perceptions vary systematically across groups and how they can be corrected for. We also show how the impact of a project on empowerment can be tested. In our application we find that most of the differences in self-reported empowerment are perceptual and that a self-help group intervention does not increase women’s empowerment.

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